Violence in Africa has been moving away from armed conflicts to higher levels of riots, protests and social violence, such as homicide and violence associated with organised crime.
The lease on the only permanent US military base in Africa, Camp Lemonnier in Djibouti is $63M a year. China, building its own facility at the other end of the Gulf of Tadjoura, gets a bargain at $20M
Sahelian states succeeded in chasing out jihadist groups from major towns, but these have not been accompanied by the return of their administration in “liberated” areas – sometimes even to the outskirts of some cities
Chad’s Déby, Togo’s Bongo and other incumbents – reportedly including Zimbabwe’s ubiquitous Mugabe – safely ensconced in power by fair means or foul, will preen before the cameras and bask in France’s official approval
Leaders have sometimes been unwilling to step down when ousted in a vote and use various methods, both legal and otherwise, to prolong their stay in power.