With runner-up Martin Fayulu challenging the result, and the powerful Catholic church and the French also casting doubt on his victory, Tshisekedi is unlikely to have an easy road to power.
In the late 1980s only Botswana, Gambia and Mauritius held relatively open multiparty elections. Today, almost every state bar Eritrea holds elections of some form, though presidents win 88% of the polls they contest.
In the 1990s many African states reinvented their constitutions to build good political societies. They moved away from one-party authoritarian states. The limitations on presidential terms have not entirely quashed a culture of entitlement to rule
ECOWAS brought a swift end to the potentially explosive crisis sparked by the refusal of former Gambia president Yahya Jammeh to hand over to the newly elected Adama Barrow. Jammeh eventually went into exile
Kabila would not have been able to consolidate himself in power in DRC without the military intervention of Angola, Namibia, and Zimbabwe in 1998.
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