There are 40,000 African asylum seekers in Israel, mostly from Sudan and Eritrea. In the last few years many have been held during the nights in a desert detention facility.
In 2016 more than 55% of refugees came from just three countries, but South Sudan has replaced Somalia as one of those countries.
A new law requires the employed ones to lodge 20% of their earnings with the state, to be repaid only when they leave the country.
In 2015, Eritreans, Sudanese and Somalis made up a significant proportion of arrivals to Italy via the Mediterranean, now the prolonged drought conditions have depleted the resources they would need to cross borders.
They are escaping from compulsory and open-ended national service, political persecution and a failing economy. Over 6% of the population have left.
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