More than 150 women and girls were raped, beaten, and brutalised over a 10-day period at the end of November.
There are 40,000 African asylum seekers in Israel, mostly from Sudan and Eritrea. In the last few years many have been held during the nights in a desert detention facility.
The outflow of refugees to English-speaking Kenya and Uganda means the language may remain influential. A similar process could also see the strengthening of Amharic, in eastern regions bordering Ethiopia
In the latest protests in Harare, shops owned by the vice president and other senior officials were looted